The production of pasta is done through a number of specific technical operations; these are: the mixing and processing of ingredients (that makes the dough), fragmentation and forming (to define the size of the pasta), possible drying (to minimize moist food).
It is also possible to extend this concept to the production of many other pasta products that are NOT typical Italian food , like the couscous, the spatzle, spaghetti made of soy , rice and so on.
The industrial production of pasta refers to the DRY one and it uses some fundamental steps that require specific instrumentation; these are: grinding and screening of wheat for pasta : by passing the seeds between three consecutive pairs of metal rollers which, rotating on their own axes but in the opposite direction from each other, comminute the then the bran and the groats. The total of the waste is predominantly fibrous type, and amounts to about 20-22 % of the initial raw material.
Kneading and dough-making of the pasta : semolina or the granules obtained by grinding and screening is then added to water to form the dough; this product, made through the use of a machine called GRAMOLA , acquires a amalgamated, firm and elastic consistency, thanks to the presence of, physico-chemical characteristics essential for the success of ‘ food . NB . The process requires a temperature of about 80 ° C and a pressure of about 10 bar .
Wire drawing or rolling of pasta: once extracted from kneading the dough is placed in the machine for extrusion. The shape of the dough may require two different systems: one for the wire drawing (called wiredrawing), which extrudes the dough and gives a surface more or less (depending on whether you use bronze or other materials), or one for lamination (called LAMINATOR) which, by passing the dough between two cylinders gradually less distant from each other , determines the leakage of a “browse “. This system does NOT need to reach high temperatures and pressures instead of the typical wire drawing – extrusion.
Drying pasta : is done differently depending on the TYPE of dough you’re working with, it is important that the final size does not exceed 12.5% of moisture from a slurry having 35% of the total amount of water. Generally the drying is done with warm or cold air, as higher temperatures the mixture would undergo a rapid dehydration surface so as not to allow time for the water to migrate from the inside to the outside of the food.
Cooling or packaging of pasta: cooling is essential for dried, extruded pasta, while the packaging varies depending on the type of pasta and used packaging: bags, boxes etc.